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CSS - Cascading Style Sheets

This website has been built using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

CSS is an important method of controlling the visual appearance of web pages, using a powerful set of style definitions. CSS gives website designers creative control over the layout and design of Web pages, - and eliminates a need to use tables and framesets to structure the content on a web page. Click here to see what happens when CSS is switched off for this page.

CSS were invented by Bert Bos and Hakon Wium Lie in the early 1990s. CSS1 became a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Technical Recommendation in 1996.

It is possible for maticulous website designers to make pages look very good using only HTML. However the results are often sluggish, unpredictable and laden with clunky code.

This website validates against CSS level 2.1. On 19th July 2007 W3C issued a recommendation that this new specification (CSS 2.1) be implemented.

Stop Designs has adopted the CSS level 2.1 standard for all new website design and coding.

Exploring 'CSS versus Tables' on the internet.

The underlying 'source' code for a website can be viewed from your browser window. (eg For Internet Explorer 7 go to the browser menu and select [Page] and [View Source] ).

The use of CSS can be confirmed by this form of text which appears in the <Head> section of each page.

<link href="css/main.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />

Here is an example of the use of 'Tables' to structure the contents of a webpage. This appears in the <Body> section of the page.

<table width="50%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tr>
<th scope="row">Text</th><td>Text </td> </tr>
</table>

It must be emphasised, however, that there are occassions when the limited use of Tables is appropriate, - at least until CSS3 (or equivalent) is introduced and adopted by all internet browsers..

 

Frames and Framesets

The use of HTML Frames in a website is indicated by this type of code.

<frameset rows="33,*" border="0" framespacing="0" frameborder="NO">
<frame src="/topframe.asp?id=12345&c=40&referer=http://www.." name="top" noresize scrolling="NO">
<frame src="http://www.smithandjones.com.uk" name="Content" noresize scrolling="YES">
</frameset>

Stop Designs is reluctant to develop websites using this format. Many search engines have difficulty in reading frameset pages and frames violate too many web standards.

 

Links

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

Bullet Point CSS Zen Garden - see examples to illustrate the powers of CSS.

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